Keywords by Inquiry, Referral and Journal writing by APLS 4.5/5 (2)

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Suspected ApL diagnosis

  • Disease history (thromboembolism, spontaneous abortion)
  • Results of medical examinations (see below)
  • Antibodies (ANA, anti-cardiolipin and / or beta2 glycoprotein) and / or lupus anticoagulant (coagulation laboratory)

Disease history

Medical examinations

  • Clinical investigation findings
    • Signs of SLE or other rheumatic disease?
    • Arthritis, skin, blood (low blood cell count), kidneys (edema, urine test), heart, lungs, ANA and other antibodies
    •  Skin symptoms
  • Serum Antibodies
    • ANA (possibly subgroups), Cardiolipin antibody, Beta-2 glycoprotein antibody, Lupus anticoagulant (Coagulation laboratory)

Referral to specialist

  • Rheumatologist referral is relevant if rheumatic symptoms are present or for "secondary antiphospholipid syndrome" related to SLE or (rarer) other rheumatic disease
  • Hematologist referral if a primarily APLS is suspected
  • Maternity outpatient clinic / gynecologist is contacted if planned or present pregnancy

Norwegian Directorate of Health (Supervisor for referrals)

Antifosfolipid syndrome

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