- What is the reason for suspecting antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS)?
Suspected ApL diagnosis
- Disease history (thromboembolism, spontaneous abortion)
- Results of medical examinations (see below)
- Antibodies (ANA, anti-cardiolipin and / or beta2 glycoprotein) and / or lupus anticoagulant (coagulation laboratory)
- Known Systemic lupus erythematosus (secondary antiphospholipid syndrome)
- Known other risk factors for thromboembolism?
- Results of prior pregnancies?
- Spontaneous abortions (period of pregnancy) and deaths
- Please read more about pregnancy with Antifosfolipid Syndrome here
- Clinical investigation findings
- Serum Antibodies
- ANA (possibly subgroups), Cardiolipin antibody, Beta-2 glycoprotein antibody, Lupus anticoagulant (Coagulation laboratory)
- Thrombocytopenia (not often)
|Differential diagnoses for CAPS (Kazzaz, NM, 2016)|
|Lung Disease (ARDS)||++ / -||-||+/-||+/-||-||-|
|Heart disease (Infarction, failure)||+/-||-||-||-||-||-|
|APL (> 40 U / ml)||++||-||-||-||-||-|
Referral to specialist
- Rheumatologist referral is relevant if rheumatic symptoms are present or for "secondary antiphospholipid syndrome" related to SLE or (rarer) other rheumatic disease
- Hematologist referral if a primarily APLS is suspected
- Maternity outpatient clinic / gynecologist is contacted if planned or present pregnancy
- Refferal to a specialist is preferably sent to the local rheumatological department. If requested, patients may be referred to: Rheumatology Department, OUS Rikshospitalet, PO Box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 OSLO. The department receives patients from the Health Region South East and from other regions as far as capacity is concerned.
- By primarily APLS, one can consider referral to Department of Blood Diseases, OUS