HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a type of retrovirus that causes a weakening of immune system, so risk Opportunistic infections increases. The HIV virus is also the cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) which was first reported in 1981. Some people get rheumatic symptoms. The risk of opportunistic infections is particularly high with HIV infection if you also receive immunosuppressive drugs that are used, among other things, for rheumatic diseases. This typically applies if the number of white blood cells in the form of CD4 T cell falls below 150. Infection occurs through blood or blood products, unclean syringes (drug addicts), sexual contact and from infected mother to child during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding.
The disease does not have to cause special problems. As many as 10-60% are without symptoms.
- Neck: Mononucleosis-like symptoms with sore throat, fever and exhaustion
- Skin: Maculo-papular eczema (5-10mm) over upper thoracic (chest), throat and face 2-3 days after fever / subfebrile. Mouth ulcers. (Differential diagnosis: SLE, but ANA in blood test is normal / negative)
- Gastrointestinal: Nausea, diarrhea and weight loss
- Neurological: Headache, especially behind eyes (retrobulbar)
- Rheumatic symptoms occurs in approx. 5% of HIV positive people
- Muscle pain og Joint pain. Myopathy (HIV-associated muscle disease) include Myositis, Rhabdomyolysis og Inclusion body myositis. Arthritis (reactive).
- Avascular Bone Necrosis (Osteonecrosis)
- Sjögren's syndrome similar disease (Diffuse Infiltrative Lymphocytosis Syndrome / DILS, possibly with swollen salivary glands (Parotitis)
The disease is effectively treated with tablets against the virus, but it can not be cured.