- 1 Older people
- 2 Aging causes stiffness in the body
- 3 The body changes over the years
- 4 Occurrence of age-related changes (stiffness)
- 5 The spine changes shape with age and we get lower
- 6 Stiffness in joints and tendons with age
- 7 Age changes in the muscles
- 8 Nervous system and age
- 9 The eye and vision affect the balance
- 10 Prevention and treatment of age-related symptoms
- 11 Diseases that cause joints and muscular complaints
- 12 Rheumatic disease among the elderly
- 13 Literature
The definition of older people varies, but are often people over 65 years of age. Some define people 60-74 years as "younger old", 75-85 years as "old" and over 85 years as "oldest".
However, the definition of elderly depends on the population being assessed, of which life expectancy is important. In parts of Africa, the UN has designated people over the age of 55 as older.
Aging causes stiffness in the body
Aging is a normal process that involves many physical changes. One becomes stiffer and one moves less smoothly. Posture is affected. The symptoms can be normal aging which is due to gradual changes in several parts of the body at the same time. These symptoms must be distinguished from rheumatic disease.
The body changes over the years
Aging occurs at the cellular level in millions of cells throughout the body and causes changes in the muscles, tendons, and skeletons described below. Other signs of aging are reduced hearing and vision, slower heart rhythm, higher blood pressure and less mental resilience.
Occurrence of age-related changes (stiffness)
Stiffness and weaker muscles are often marked from the age of 50, but begin small years earlier.
- Normal aging is distinguished from pain conditions that may result from previous injuries and disease of the neck, back, muscles, joints, tendons or nerves. In some cases, no particular cause of pain is detected
- Among people aged 50-59 years, it has been found that one in three has chronic pain affecting quality of life
The spine changes shape with age and we get lower
- With age, each intervertebral disc loses fluid and shrinks slightly. The spine is thus slightly lower and less movable
- Also, the vertebrae themselves are slightly lower when they lose lime over the years, especially in the front and most commonly among women. The result is that the body height becomes smaller, the spine somewhat stiffer
- The slightly curved, normal curvature of the chest vertebrae increases
- With age, lime is formed in the form of beak-shaped osteophytes or tapering between the vertebrae. They can occur in areas with irritations, rubs and small inflammation or without obvious cause. The purpose of these calcifications is to stabilize irritated areas, but the result is a less mobile back
The vertebra are bound together by side joints (facet). These are as other joints covered by cartilage. Over the years, the cartilage is damaged and replaced with uneven calcifications. Osteoarthritis causes stiffness and can be painful by stress and movement. Age changes in the back thus result in reduced body height, stiffness and changes of the posture.
Stiffness in joints and tendons with age
The skeleton is the frame on which the body leans on. Joints constitute connections between the skeleton parts.
The surface of the joints is covered with a soft and flexible layer of cartilage. Joint fluid is tough and smooth, not different oil. It should reduce friction and help nourish the cartilage.
- With age or after injury, joint cartilage will partially vanish and be replaced by lime and a hard, uneven joints. It occurs osteoarthritis (arthritis) that plagues 1020% from 60 years of age and is detected in about 50% of all 65 year olds. The joint fluid also loses part of its effect. Hip and knee joint, which means a lot to the movements when we move, is among the most common affected joints. Soft movements become stiffness and effortless walking and running become painful. A tendency to bent knees and hips affects the body posture. Fingers outermost joints (DIP joints)the inner joints of the thumbs (CMC-1 joint, almost at the wrist) and big toe's largest joint (MTP-1) are also among joints affected by osteoarthritis. Hand function and walking are affected.
- Even the many small joints inside the foot (footroot) and the tendons change. The feets archs become flatter, resulting in stiffer walking, poorer balance and slightly lower body height.
- Particularly women lose much of the calcium content of the skeleton with age and it can occur osteoporosis. This is not noticed until the weakness results in a fracture of the skeleton. If several of the vertebrae of the spine are affected (compression fractures), the upper body will be markedly shortened. Often, there is also an inclined attitude because the front part of the swirl collapses most.
- I tendons og slime bags can be stored lime, often in shoulders. This can trigger strong pain and contribute to reduced movement. The joints and tendons change over the years, so that the range of our movements get reduced and partly painful.
Age changes in the muscles
The muscles make us move and provide strength. Although exercise helps, the body with increasing age will gradually replace muscle tissue with fatty tissue and collagen which is harder connective tissue.
- A tendency of such decline in muscle mass (muscle atrophy) detected from 50 years of age. The muscle mass decreases by 1,5% annually between 50 and 60 years, then by approx. 3% every year. The changes are most easily visible on hands. The decline of the many small muscles causes the hands to be often slender and tendonous in older people.
- They respond quickly muscle fibers (muscle fiber type II) is gradually replaced with a slower type (muscle fiber type I). It is also well known that training takes much longer with increasing age.
Nervous system and age
The muscles receive continuous signals from nervous System. This consists of nerves for arms, legs and CNS in the brain and spine which also includes the balance organ. Thus, balance and coordination are maintained.
- The nervous system also weakens with age, so that the muscles do not receive signals as before. Stiffness, tremors, twitching or reduced muscle power can occur without a particular illness. The nervous system must play its part in order for agile and rapid reactions to be affected by age.
The eye and vision affect the balance
The need for reading glasses is a well-known phenomenon from the age of 40-50, and is due to the lenses getting stiffer with age. Cataracts og retina (retina) changes affects our vision in backlight (blending) and dusk (night vision) respectively.
- All in all, reduced vision makes the hallway more search and cautious.
Prevention and treatment of age-related symptoms
Research on cells and genes will lead to opportunities to stop the aging process, but practical results are still far in the future. However, reducing the aging process is completely possible for everyone.
- You can counteract that the body shrinks, the muscles weaken and the joints become painful
Physical activity becomes more important with age
Many become more comfortable and reduce physical activity with age, which is detrimental to health.
- Regular activity and stretches for mobility counteract rigidity. Physical mobility and exercise increase nutrient supply to the cartilage and can counteract cartilage damage and osteoarthritis.
- A strong muscle stabilizes the joints and improves walking function. In fact, conscious activity and exercise become more important the older one is. Anyone can help maintain a good posture when exercising, exercising and exercising muscle strength in the back, abdomen, shoulders and legs. Two points are particularly important then:
- Start the activity and the training tailored to the physical level you are on. The higher the age, the longer it takes to build up
- Well-being is crucial to continuing over time. Some train in social communities and groups, while others enjoy the silence along the way in nature or have a focused exercise program. Choose what suits you best
Proteins, vitamins and minerals
- Conscious intake of meat, dairy products, fish is important
- To avoid lack of Vitamin D fish, tran and sun are important. Other vitamins and minerals are obtained through a regular diet
- If suspected deficiencies are present, blood tests may reveal the need for supplementation
Diseases that cause joints and muscular complaints
- Joint pain is described here
- Muscle pain is discussed here
- Osteoarthritis ("osteoarthritis")
- Osteoporosis (osteoporosis)
- Fibromyalgia (chronic pain in the "whole" body)
- Polynevropathy (numbness) (Vaskulitt.no)
- Polymyalgia rheumatica (rapid onset of muscle pain and inflammation) (Vaskulitt.no)
- Arthritis (inflamed joint)
- Myositis (muscle inflammation)
- Spondyloarthritis (chronic back and / or joint symptoms before 45's age)
Rheumatic disease among the elderly
Complicating factors among the elderly are an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, kidney failure, cancer and infections. Multiple diseases at the same time (comorbidity) often lead to several drugs that can affect the anti-rheumatic treatment. Age changes also generally affect the treatment's response to the immune system and how quickly drugs are excreted by the body. There is therefore a need for special attention in the treatment and follow-up of elderly people with rheumatic disease.